33. Ben Loc An revolutionary historical relic

Cửa hàng đã đóng cửa.
Phuoc Thuan Commune, Xuyen Moc District, Ba Ria - Vung Tau Province, Vietnam ( Chỉ đường )
0254 3607 175
The location of Loc An estuary was surveyed along the coastal road and chosen as the place for no numberless wharf to transport weapons into Ba Ria and the Southeast region. Favorable conditions such as the border with primeval forest, the interlaced tributary system of the Ray River and Xuyen Moc sea route along with the fact that Loc An estuary can anchor boats in the stormy season have made this place a choice to become one of the wharves for the Numberless boats to dock and transport weapons. Loc An Wharf Revolutionary Historical Site (Ho Chi Minh road on the sea) was recognized as a Revolutionary Historical Site according to Decision No. 1568QD/BT dated April 20th, 1995 of the Ministry of Culture and Information.


  1. Name: Loc An Wharf

Origin of Name: Loc An Village, belonging to Tong Phuoc Hung Ha, Phu Phuoc Tuy District – Bà Rịa Province (now part of Loc An Hamlet, Phuoc Long Hoi Commune, Long Dat District – Bà Rịa – Vung Tau). Due to the Ray River mouth within the area, locals refer to this coastal area as Loc An Wharf.

  1. Location and Directions to the Relic:

Loc An Wharf borders between Phuoc Buu Commune, Xuyen Moc District, and Phuoc Long Hoi Commune, Long Dat District, Ba Ria– Vung Tau Province. This locale marks the entrance to the Ray River, a petite yet charming watercourse that stretches approximately 75km, originating from Tan Phong and Chua Chan Mountain, meandering southward (Dong Nai) through Xuyen Moc, Long Dat, and ultimately embracing the vast sea.

Nestled strategically amidst the coastal splendor of Southeastern Vietnam, Loc An paints a picturesque canvas extending from Ke Ga (Ham Tan – Binh Thuan) to the enchanting Can Gio Estuary (Ho Chi Minh City). Geographically, it holds a poised position, standing 15km north of Vung Tau and about 10km south of the bustling Xuyen Moc district center. For those journeying through the scenic road 23 towards Ba To and Phuoc Buu, the gateway to Loc An beckons a mere 7km from the coastline. Embarking on a coastal adventure from the captivating Ho Tram Cape (Phuoc Buu – Xuyen Moc), the alluring charm of Loc An begins to unfold roughly 9km into the mesmerizing voyage.

  1. Events – Personalities – History

3.1. Natural Conditions and Geographic Location

Loc An nestles harmoniously along the eastern coastal tapestry from Ham Tan to Xuyen Moc. This enchanting region boasts an expansive primeval forest that stretches over 15km, adorned with the dense foliage and humid embrace characteristic of a tropical rainforest along the East Sea. It proudly stands as an integral part of the Phuoc Buu National Reserve, safeguarding precious wood species, including Rose-wood, Doussie, Burma Ironwood and fostering animals include precious types such as deer, moose, wild boar, birds….

Loc An and surrounding areas have relatively flat topography, classified as sub-midland terrain, with an average elevation of 10 to 15 meters above sea level. It falls within the semi-diurnal tide zone, with a tidal range of 3.9m at its highest and 0.6m at its lowest. The region undergoes distinctive seasonal changes, marked by a pronounced wet season from May to November and a dry season spanning December to April. The abundant sunlight throughout the year fosters a favorable environment for the flourishing growth of various plant species.

3.2. Vibrant Locals of Loc An

Loc An, alongside neighboring hamlets such as Ho Tram, Phuoc Buu, and Binh Chau, has been a haven for Vietnamese settlers since the 17th and 18th centuries. Their main occupations include water rice cultivation and fishing.

Additionally, there are small indigenous communities in the area, such as the Cho Ro and Se Tieng ethnic groups. They reside along streams, riverbanks, deep within the forests, practicing slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting.

During the feudal period, especially under French colonization, the lives of the people were challenging. When the rays of the revolutionary light illuminated the path, the residents of the coastal regions, including Loc An and Phuoc Hai, embraced it with determination. Phuoc Hai became the first cradle of revolution in Ba Ria Province, where the first Communist Party branch was established in 1934.

Summary: With its strategic location and favorable environmental conditions, Loc An played a crucial role in the success of both resilient resistance campaigns of our people. Furthermore, the area has the potential for the construction of a port and the exploitation of marine resources.

3.3. Loc An During the anti-French Resistance War (1945 – 1954)

In the struggle against the French colonial forces, Loc An and the coastal areas of Xuyen Moc – Long Dat emerged as a formidable stronghold for the Bà Rịa province, recognized as the Xuyen Phuoc Co base. This strategic location played a crucial role as a communication hub connecting the Southern region to the Central region and vice versa. Additionally, it served as a key point for receiving support from the Central leadership for the provinces in the Southeast.

In mid-1946, comrades Nguyen Tan Cach and Nguyen Van Phuc departed from Ho Tram (Phuoc Buu) to Quang Ngai, reporting the local situation to the Southern Resistance Committee and seeking weapons support from the Central Committee.

May 1946 witnessed the arrival of a boat carrying vital support from the Central Committee at Ho Tram. The cargo included a battalion, weapons, and 400,000 VND. This delivery played a pivotal role in strengthening the armed forces of Ba Ria province and fostering the momentum of the resistance movement in the region.

By mid-1952, the coastal region of Xuyen Moc – Long Dat served as the operational area for the 320th Battalion, a strategic transport battalion of the Eastern region. The battalion’s primary responsibility was to receive and transport strategic supplies from the Central Committee, originating from Ham Tan – Xuyen Moc, to combat Zone D. This facilitated the movement of Central Committee officials between the South and the North.

Throughout the 9-year Anti-French Resistance War, the officials, soldiers, and inhabitants of the Xuyen Moc – Long Dat coastal region demonstrated remarkable courage, actively participating in combat and making significant contributions. Their efforts played a pivotal role in achieving a resounding victory against the French and securing independence for the homeland.

3.4. Loc An During the anti-American resistance war (1954 – 1975)

After the years of the general uprising (1960), the issue of arming the liberation armed forces became crucial. The Central Party decided to provide weapons and personnel to the South through a maritime route.

In early 1961, the Central Office for the South sent individuals to the mysterious Xuyen Moc – Ba Ria region to study the terrain, organize forces, and prepare docks and facilities to receive weapons from the Central for the Southeastern battlefield. After careful deployment, exploration, and research along the coastal stretch from Ke Ga, Ham Tan to Ho Coc, Loc An, the comrades decided to choose the Ray River and the Loc An estuary as the location to receive the ships.

Loc An had the advantage of a fairly deep canal that could accommodate ships ranging from 20 to 100 tons. Dense vegetation grew closely on both sides of the riverbanks, and the flat land allowed for easy deployment of carrying forces. However, Loc An was a tidal flat, and ships could easily run aground if the tide was not taken into account.

A reality was that the revolutionary base in Xuyen Moc was facing many difficulties at this time. The enemy had destroyed villages, gathered people in strategic hamlets to isolate and separate them from the revolution.

Given the situation, in June 1963, comrade Nguyen Van Chi (Six Chi), Deputy Secretary of the Eastern Regional Party Committee, went down to Xuyen Moc to implement the decision to establish the 1500 Transport Unit based on 200 officers and soldiers, with Mai Van Binh as the unit commander and Nguyen Van Chi as the unit political commissar.

The main task of Unit 1500 was to survey the terrain, measure the canal depths, understand the laws of tidal water movement, and create docks to receive ships. Simultaneously with the survey, Unit 1500 undertook the excavation of tunnels, secret bunkers, and a transportation network for military construction to hide and protect weapons before transfer.

In the last months of 1963, internal conflicts within the Ngo Dinh Diem regime escalated. As the strategic hamlet breaking movement spread in Xuyen Moc, Long Dat, and throughout the province, the enemy’s strategic hamlet system in Xuyen Moc was broken.  The revolutionary forces took control of a large area, importantly dominating the coastal region stretching from Binh Chau down to Ho Coc, Ho Tram, and Loc An.

In early November 1963, Unit 1500 had basically completed the preparations to receive weapons ships at Loc An. The unit had constructed docks, hidden treasure vaults, and ensured the storage of goods, guaranteeing provisions for the forces gathering for a “special mission.” The officers and soldiers of the unit were ready to carry out the task of receiving the Central’s cargo ships at Loc An.

– Strategic Cargo Mission:

When the preparations were somewhat stable, Unit 1500 received orders from the Regional Command that from November 28 to 30, 1963, the ships would arrive. The journey started from a special military port on Cat Ba Island, sailed backward towards Hainan Island (China), then turned south along the international waters. The ship was captained by Le Van Mot, with Dang Van Thanh as the political officer.

The wooden vessel, constructed by the Ministry of Transport’s Mechanical Department in Hai Phong, measured 30 meters in length, 5.6 meters in width, and had a carrying capacity of 50 tons. Its design, resembling a “ghe bau” ensured resilience against waves. The ship, intentionally built low and enclosed, featured a slightly elevated steering room to minimize visibility.

On the night of November 28, 1963, the ship crossed the Ham Tan area en route to Loc An. Approaching dawn with calm waters, the captain decided to venture into international waters, awaiting nightfall before proceeding.

This maritime zone fell under the jurisdiction of the Third Coastal Zone Command of the Saigon puppet army stationed in Cat Lo (Vung Tau). Daily ship inspections were conducted along the coastline, spanning 2 to 7 km from the shore. Additionally, patrols from the U.S. Seventh Fleet, reconnaissance aircraft, and a comprehensive communication system were active in the region.

Situated at Bung Say, approximately 3 km from the entrance to Loc An, the 1500 Unit Command received urgent instructions from the Regional Command: “The ship has reached the maritime area; it must be received tonight at any cost-swiftly, smoothly, and safely.” All units swiftly assumed their designated positions.

In the dead of night, the ship arrived at the entrance to Loc An. Facing the tidal bore at around three in the morning, the captain opted to increase speed and engage full throttle in a race against the rapidly flowing water. Despite these efforts, an underwater sandbank emerged, obstructing the ship’s bow and causing it to become deeply embedded in the sand. To salvage the ship, the captain made the tough decision to jettison 18 barrels of oil and some weaponry into the sea, yet the vessel remained stuck. Dawn was breaking.

Responding to the situation, the 1500 Unit Command mobilized all available forces to the dock for the immediate reception of the weapons. The primary workforce was drawn from various agencies and organizations within the province. While a standby team aboard the weapons shipment boat transferred to smaller vessels, the majority of the forces received weapons at the dock and transported them from the boats to the Thang Tay location, situated approximately 3 km away. The ship’s crew hoisted a false flag and concealed the nets, while a combat-ready team stood prepared to fend off any approaching threats.

By 10:30 AM, the entire arsenal aboard the ship had been successfully unloaded. Recovering the weapons discarded into the sea was also accomplished. Over 600 laborers, representing both the province and the unit, were each provided with a 20kg bag and promptly sent back to the base that very afternoon. The remaining weaponry was meticulously concealed within the substantial trunks of trees in the Phuoc Buu forest, as had been prearranged.

During that period, an enemy reconnaissance aircraft frequented the area but only spotted a stranded boat with a few fishermen drying their nets on deck.

In the late afternoon, as the tide rose, the comrades towed the ship back to the dock at Ba Phim canal, about 2 km from the entrance to Loc An. The entire 20-ton weapons shipment had been successfully received, ensuring its safety.

Eighteen oil barrels were carefully carried by the comrades near Phuoc Hai and placed on the beach. As night fell, the rising tide carried them back into the sea. The enemy’s intelligence in Vung Tau managed to salvage these barrels and, based on the markings, speculated that a Soviet submarine had landed in the Binh Chau area. The enemy dispatched the 4th Naval Commando Unit based in Vung Tau to sweep the Ray River area. They diligently searched both riverbanks and scoured the sandy beach for any suspicious signs. However, within three days, the sea waves had washed away and erased all traces. The enemy dared not venture deep into the dense forest area.

The ship, low on fuel and with a broken mast, was cleverly concealed within the soil wall and camouflaged with leaves. Despite numerous reconnaissance flights by the enemy, nothing was detected.

After more than two weeks without enemy intrusion, the assumption of remaining undetected gained confidence. The unit’s command decided to purchase grease and coordinated with the Central to relocate the ship to a base in Ben Tre before heading north.

The securely protected and safely transported 20-ton weapon shipment included: 1500 Red Flag rifles, each accompanied by 1000 rounds of ammunition; 24 submachine guns and light machine guns; 2 DKZ guns; 10 60mm mortars; 20,000 mines and grenades; and 5 tons of TNT explosives.

The entire arsenal received from the first shipment in November 1963 at Loc An was an invaluable asset. It significantly bolstered the armed forces of the province and the region, providing timely equipment to intensify liberation activities. This played a crucial role in achieving resounding victory in the Binh Gia campaign, defeating the American Puppet government’s special war strategy.

Following the successful reception of the first weapons shipment, Lieutenant General Tran Van Tra, Deputy Chief of Staff of the People’s Army of Vietnam, issued instructions to accept another shipment. Unit 1500 deployed its forces, meticulously prepared the dock, and safely received the second weapons shipment at Loc An. This iron-clad ship docked precisely on the night between February 12 and 13, 1964.

The ship was brought close to Ben Trang, and the weapons were unloaded on the same day. The ship was then taken to another discreet mooring point on the Sao River, and three days later, it was safely pulled out.

During this weapons reception journey, the local civilian labor force actively participated, traversing the forests and streams day and night to transport the weapons back to the provincial base at Quyt Rung stream. This timely equipment was provided to the military units preparing for the enemy at Binh Gia.

In early 1965, following the victory in the Binh Gia campaign, we maintained control over the liberated areas of Xuyen Moc – Long Dat, creating favorable conditions for the logistics of the region to safely receive the third weapons shipment, which docked at Loc An on March 15, 1965. This was the largest shipment compared to the two previous ones. The main weapons included Red Flag rifles, submachine guns, light machine guns, K50s, grenades, mines, explosives, and various types of ammunition. These weapons were distributed to equip the regional units in preparation for the Phuoc Long – Dong Xoai campaign.

Thanks to the timely equipment with weapons, by mid-1965, the military and civilians in Xuyen Moc had essentially dismantled the entire strategic hamlet system, liberating two-thirds of the land. The region achieved strong control, and the local authorities in each commune gradually stabilized people’s lives. After this weapons shipment, considering the possibility that Loc An could be compromised, the higher-ups decided to eliminate
the dock altogether.

Loc An was one of the key points for receiving weapons directed by the Central Committee for the Southern battlefield through the Ho Chi Minh Sea Trail during the anti-American resistance war. Officers, soldiers, and people in Xuyen Moc district, specifically, and Bà Rịa province, in general, displayed courage and intelligence in accepting and safeguarding the safety of the three weapons shipment trains from the Central Committee at Loc An in the challenging circumstances regarding weapons at that time. As a result, timely equipment was provided for the armed units, enhancing their activities, destroying numerous enemy strongholds, dismantling many strategic hamlets, expanding liberated areas, and significantly contributing to the victories at Binh Gia and the national liberation struggle of the Vietnamese people.

  1. Type of Relic

Loc An Wharf is designated as a revolutionary historical relic.

  1. Relic Description

The relic of Loc An Wharf encompasses the following key points:

5.1. Loc An sea gate

The location where the first weapons shipment got stuck on November 30, 1963. This sea gate is located at the border between Phuoc Binh Commune in Xuyen Moc District and Phuoc Long Hau Commune in Long Dat District. This relic is situated at latitude 1070 21’8″ and longitude  10027’43”. The sea gate is approximately 750m wide. The surrounding area is relatively flat, with one side being a sandbar village belonging to Loc An Commune and the other side being a sandy beach along the coastline.  The seaport has sandbars underwater, creating small waterways that small boats can navigate during low tide.

5.2. Location where the first ship hid after unloading weapons

Located on Ba Phin Cat Creek, latitude  107022’24”, and longitude 10028’25”. The canal is about 20m wide and 2-3m deep. The distance from Loc An Wharf to this location is 1,600m. The first ship stayed here for 16 days. The banks of the creek are covered with various vegetation such as mangroves, coconut palms, and fish mint.

5.3. Point where the second and third ships docked for unloading weapons

Located on Sao River Creek, latitude 107022’37”, and longitude 10029’13”.  The canal has a width of approximately 25m and a depth ranging from 2 to 4m. This point is approximately 3,000m from Loc An Seaport and 200m from Tranh Wharf. Weapons were transported from this point to Ben Tranh through the Sac Forest area for further distribution to combat zone D.

5.4. Point where the second and third ships docked after unloading weapons

This point is also on Sao River Creek at latitude 107022’39” and longitude 10029’13”. It is around 300m from the weapons unloading point and 3,200m from Loc An Sea Gate. The canal is approximately 25m wide and 3-4m deep, with dense vegetation on both sides.

5.5. Tranh Wharf

A gathering point for weapons before the second and third voyages, Tranh Wharf is located at latitude  107022’41” and longitude 10029’1″. The terrain here is relatively flat, mainly covered with reeds, and Tranh Wharf spans an area of nearly 40,000m2.  Ben Tranh is roughly 2,800m from the Loc An Sea Gate.

5.6. Khi Wharf

A location where the reconnaissance platoon of the Provincial Reconnaissance Unit of Ba Ria – Long Khanh Province stationed during the time the ship arrived. This point is situated at latitude 107022’7″  and longitude 10028’9″. Khi Wharf is located next to a sand hill, approximately 850m away from the Loc An Sea Gate.

5.7. Sand Collection Point for the Ship

This spot is where the third weapons shipment, before departure, stopped to collect sand to balance the ship’s weight. Located on the sand dunes along the Ray River, about 1,200m from the Loc An Sea Gate, at latitude 107022’18” and longitude 10028’6″.

5.8. Bung Say

The location where Unit 1500 set up camp, Bung Say is near the end of Ba Phin Cat canal, about 100m from the location where the first ship hid.   The terrain here is relatively flat, with various types of forest vegetation, such as bamboo, coconut, and fish mint. Unit 1500 stationed here, ensuring supplies for both the unit and the provincial laborers during the times when the ship arrived. Latitude 107022’55” and longitude kinh độ 10028’39”.

5.9. So Thang Tay

Named So Thang Tay due to its historical significance during the French colonial period, this point is approximately 2,500m from the entrance of Loc An Sea Gate. It was a gathering point for weapons before the first voyage.

This area is a sparse forest near the coastline at latitude 107023’2″  and longitude 10028’10”.

  1. Immovable Artifacts within the Relic

As of now, there are no remaining artifacts at the Loc An Wharf due to changes in the landscape and geography over time. Furthermore, all three shipments of weapons to Loc An were safely withdrawn, with the majority of the weapons being transferred to bases in Military Zone B and distributed among units in the region.

  1. Historical and Cultural Significance

Loc An Wharf stands as a compelling testament to the courage, boldness, and ingenuity of the military and people of Xuyen Moc – Long Dat district, specifically, and Ba Ria Province as a whole. Many officers and soldiers from Ba Ria Province grew and matured through the battles at this location. The people of Xuyen Moc and Long Dat, under the leadership of the Party, overcame numerous challenges, demonstrating unwavering commitment to the revolution during both the Anti-French  resistance and the Anti-America Resistance.

Loc An also symbolizes the strategic maritime transport route known as the “Ho Chi Minh Sea Trail,” which facilitated the shipment of goods from the North to support the revolution in the South.

Loc An Wharf has truly become a relic of historical and cultural significance. This historical relic needs investment in protection, preservation, and utilization to pass down traditions to future generations.

  1. Conservation Efforts

Currently, Loc An Wharf has suffered natural deterioration over time. The distinctive marks have faded away, and the vegetation has been affected by Agent Orange and phosphorescent bombs dropped by the United States. Both riverbanks and water channels are eroding due to rain, wind, and floods. Therefore, restoration and preservation efforts are essential, especially in protecting the national reserve forest in Phuoc Buu to maintain the overall landscape.

Currently, this relic has not been effectively protected and utilized for tourism, lacking scientific legal foundations and revolutionary education.

  1. Protection Plan

The Ba Ria – Vung Tau Museum proposes the following plan to protect, preserve, and enhance the historical significance of Loc An Wharf:

–   Compile documentation on Loc An Wharf request the Ministry of Culture and Information to recognize it as a historical relic under local management, and promptly prevent any further damage to the relic.

–  Initially, recreate the points where the ship docked, loaded weapons, the encampment of Unit 1500, and the Ba Ria – Long Khanh Military headquarters, as well as locations where weapons were gathered before departure. This will serve visitors and researchers to witness the historical value of Loc An Wharf.

–  Erect boundary markers to define the protected area for the entire Loc An Wharf relic.

–   Present an economic justification to designate Loc An Wharf as a Historical – Cultural – Tourism relic for conservation and enhancement purposes.

–  Install warning signs prohibiting any violations within the historical relic and cutting down trees.

–  Construct a monument – a heroic symbol of our military and people during the Anti-America resistance – to educate future generations.

  1. Legal Basis for Relic Protection

In accordance with the law on the protection and use of historical, cultural, and scenic relics, as declared by the Chairperson of the State Council of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in Decision No. 14-LCTHĐNN dated April 4, 1994, the Ba Ria – Vung Tau Museum proposes the designation of two protected zones for the Loc An Wharf historical relic.

  1. References
  2. “Xuyen Moc Resistance” – Published by Đồng Nai Publishing House, 1989.
  3. Xuyen Moc: Land – People – Tradition (Documentation from the Dong Nai Provincial Library, March 1984).
  4. Events of Receiving Weapons Shipments from Central Command to the South at Loc An Port – Documentation from the Party’s Historical Research Committee of Dong Nai Province (Huynh Tan Buu, summarized from an audio recording on July 2, 1981).
  5. From Loc An to the Ho Chi Minh Sea Trail – Documentation by Tran Toan, Publicity and Education Department of Dong Nai Province.
  6. Oral accounts from veteran revolutionaries: Nguyen Van Nhung (Chin Nhung), Nguyen Van Bong (Tu Bong) – New Economic Zone in Loc An, Phuoc Long Hoi Commune, Long Dat District. Nguyen Thanh Tich – Vice Chairman of the People’s Committee of Xuyen Moc District.
Hồ sơ